MA is 1 of 11 states where SPM is higher than official poverty index.

From the US Census on Measuring Poverty in the US:


The first official poverty measure -- first published in the mid-1960s — is based on cash resources.

The second — the Supplemental Poverty Measure (SPM) — includes both cash and noncash benefits and subtracts necessary expenses (such as taxes and medical expenses). Differences between Poverty Measures The official poverty measure has remained mostly unchanged since the mid-1960s, but the SPM was designed to keep pace with changes in data, methods, and new research.


In 2020, SPM rates were:

  • Higher than official poverty rates in 11 states plus the District of Columbia.

  • Lower than official poverty rates in 30 states.

  • Not statistically different in nine states.

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